You won't find the word "Purgatory" in the Bible, but there's this for example:
"And making a gathering, he sent twelve thousand drachms of silver to Jerusalem for sacrifice to be offered for the sins of the dead, thinking well and religiously concerning the resurrection, (For if he had not hoped that they that were slain should rise again, it would have seemed superfluous and vain to pray for the dead,) And because he considered that they who had fallen asleep with godliness, had great grace laid up for them. It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins". (2 Maccabees 12:43-46)
Such a practice presupposes a place such as "Purgatory", since those in Heaven wouldn’t need help, and those in Hell are beyond it.
Purgatory is a temporary dwelling place for lightly guilty souls, who already Heaven bound, died in a state of needing to reach perfected charity. When people on Earth pray for the souls in Purgatory, it helps to decrease the amount of expiation needed for them to reach that point, and once they have they're ready to move on to Heaven. And, one's act of charity by praying for others helps to decrease their own time in Purgatory if they go there.
After Adam and Eve's fall from Grace, Heaven was closed off to humans. Because of this, from then up until Jesus's resurrection, the blessed, just souls who died, not having needed to go to Purgatory or Hell, went to a place called "Limbo", awaiting the coming of Jesus to re-open Heaven. After His resurrection and ascension, He opened the gates of Heaven, taking with Him all the blessed, just souls who'd been awaiting Him in Limbo, including any souls who were ready to leave Purgatory. Since Jesus's resurrection, the blessed, just souls who died don't need to go to Limbo to wait anymore, rather straight to Heaven, and the lightly guilty souls first visit Purgatory before Heaven.
The mortally guilty souls, or damned souls, go to Hell.
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