In the mid-1970's, the Ossuary of James was discovered in a first-century burial cave in East Jerusalem. It bears a Hebrew inscription: "Yaakov bar Yoseph achui de Yeshua" (James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus). Scientific expert analysis says the ossuary and inscription are authentic, and date to the first century. André Lemaire of the Sorbonne, and Ada Yardeni of the Hebrew University, whom Hershel Shanks has described as "two world class experts in paleography", also reached the same conclusion:
Prof. Camil Fuchs of Tel Aviv, and other researchers, conducted an extensive statistical analysis of the occurrence of these three names in ancient Jerusalem, and the probability that the ossuary belonged to James, brother of Jesus of Nazareth. They determined with 95% accuracy the following:Below is the list of world-renowned researchers and experts who examined the inscription.
Experts In Natural Sciences, Archaeometry, Microscopy, Geology, Chemistry, Stone, And Patina:
- Prof. Wolfgang Krumbein, world expert in stone, geology, bio-patina, and long-term development of micro-organisms on stone, who performed his tests in collaboration with the laboratories of Oldenburg University, Germany.
- The staff of the Israel Geological Survey of Jerusalem, which specializes in archaeometric tests. Archaeometry is the science that connects natural sciences, chemistry, geology and archeology. This included geologists Dr. Shimon Ilani and Dr. Amnon Rosenfeld, together with electronic microscope expert Michael Dvoracheck.
- Staff of the Royal Ontario Museum of Toronto, which examined the inscription before the ossuary was exhibited at the ROM in 2002.
- Orna Cohen, expert in stone and conservation for the Israel Antiquities Authority and Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- Prof. James Harrell, of the University of Toledo, USA. Professor of geology of sediments, stone patina, and ancient construction stones.
Experts In Archeology, Script, Language, And Engraving:
- Prof. Yuval Goren, archeology, former staff member of the IAA and the Tel Aviv University. Expert in petrography of ancient pottery.
- Prof. Andre Lemaire, Sorbonne University, world expert on Semitic epigraphy, and specifically Hebrew and Aramaic inscriptions, philology, and archeology of the Land of Israel.
- Dr. Ada Yardeni, of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, world expert in paleography, development and history of ancient Hebrew and Aramaic.
- Prof. Ronny Reich, archeologist, scholar of Jerusalem in the Second Temple period (1-2 century AD), of Haifa University, and former senior member of the Israel Antiquities Authority who participated in numerous archeological excavations in Jerusalem during the last 50 years.
- Prof. Gabriel Barkay, senior archeologist who participated in numerous archeological excavations in Jerusalem. University lecturer.
- Prof. Yosef Naveh, expert in early Hebrew and Aramaic inscriptions.
- Prof. Frank Moore Cross, of Harvard University, expert in ancient inscriptions, who examined the ossuary inscription in Canada in 2002.
- Prof. Hagai Misgav, of the Hebrew University. Expert in western Semitic inscriptions, epigraphy and paleography, and ossuary inscriptions.
The findings of all these experts support the authenticity of the ossuary in entirety.
- Prof. Shmuel Ahitov, biblical scholar, Ben Gurion University.
...at the time there were 1.71 people named James with a father Joseph and a brother named Jesus
Statistically speaking, the most likely scenario is that the inscription can only refer to a single person during that time period.
Professor Fuchs also points out:...with a probability of over 99%, the ossuary was used two thousand years ago to intern the bones of James the brother of Jesus of Nazareth.
He continued:...it is very rare to find the brother of the deceased named in a bone-box inscription. In fact, in only one other case of the thousands of recovered bone-boxes is the brother of the deceased listed. In one other case the son of the deceased is named.
Sources:...there is little doubt that this [naming a brother or son] was done only when there was a very meaningful reason to refer to a family member of the deceased, usually due to his importance and fame.
https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/dai ... a-forgery/
https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/dai ... authentic/
https://medium.com/@tr93ee/does-the-jam ... 0db95cf8d1